Hello and thanks for visiting this “War Years 1” page, this is the second of four pages that cover my Grandfathers “full story”.

War Years covers my Grandfathers time in Operational RAF Squadrons during WW2.

Please see the “About Us” page or the “Short Story” page for more info.

Also please email me if you have any further info on people in the story or photo’s using the “Contact” page.

Thanks again.

 

War Years

Chapter 5 – Operational Squadrons

 

Foreword

These War Years chapters were compiled from my Grandfather’s audio interviews, his logbook, as well as the ORB’s for 132 Squadron. The ORB’s (Operations Record Book) entries were created to provide a complete official record of a unit from the time of its formation. Each ORB entry includes an accurate daily record of operations carried out by the unit including the aircraft serials, the pilots taking part, up and down times, and a brief report on the operation. The following is not designed to be a full history of 132 Squadron but serves to include information that relates to my Grandfather, his friends at the time and “paint a picture” of Squadron life.

 

Logbook coverAbove: Cover of John J. Caulton’s Logbook with his Service Number.

 

Flight log pagesAbove: Flight Log pages

 

ORB exampleAbove: Example of ORB’s (Operations Record Book) entries the RAF made to keep details of daily Squadron activity.

 

 

616 Squadron, Westhampnett   (20 Nov 1942 – 27 Nov 1942)

616 crest

Crest of 616 Squadron, motto “Nulla Rosa Sine Spina” (No Rose without a Thorn)

 

You get posted to different places. It came to the weekend and I said to this fellow in the orderly room don’t post me until Monday and I’ll go to London and spend the weekend there, then I would not be breaking the rules. Well he forgot to send the signal and I went down to this 616 Squadron on the Monday, down south of England and when I got there and they said, who the hell are you. The corporal had forgotten to put the posting through and they didn’t know who I was. I was out on the limb and no one knew where I was. Then the “wheels” took over after that and it all got cleared up. I didn’t stay there a long time, it was a nice station they had Spit 6’s there with a pressurised cabin. I nearly got killed in that, never mind, the fellows that I joined with were great, I was still a Sergeant at the time and they had organised one of the Batmen (A “Batman” is a Soldier or Airman assigned to a commissioned officer as a personal servant) to light the fire, polish your buttons, all these extras that didn’t come with the job as a sergeant. One day while I was there I flew the Mark 6 without the canopy, it was a clamp, two clamps that you pushed this way went this way and two that went the other, very tight cabin, but same size Spitfire, it had an elongated sharp wing tip and was supposed to be used for high flying. It was an ordinary 5 but pressurised, but the motor would take it up that high anyway, it was a bit of a failure, they built one more lot but they didn’t use them. To get out of it you pulled the two wires that were joined to the clamps and they opened the canopy in an emergency. I went up without the canopy and had a waltz around, it was interesting. The next time I went up I had the canopy on, not operational, just practice. In the 5’s you used to hear the shrill of the airstream going through the Cranston (Supercharger) and through the canopy gaps, but in the Mark 6 there was nothing, it was sealed off, next to no noise just a low hum from the motor. I went up and did some aerobatics, I did a loop and was pulling out when I passed out from the G-Forces. I heard a voice, it was someone on the same channel as I was, and someone was telling me to pull up. I came to, I don’t know what position I was in but I was close to the ground about 1500 feet, no more. I got it straight and level and back to the airfield. Then I went into shock once I got down on the ground. I had to sit in the cockpit for a while.  The Erks (Ground Crew) took the hood off, then I got out on the wing and sat there.  I started sweating profusely and had the shakes, I’d realised how close I’d come I guess.

I had two shocks in my life, these sort of shocks. I nearly accidentally drowned a fellow over by Marton (New Zealand) once. He didn’t drown but when I realised I went into shock. There were 4 of us that went out in a rowboat at the Rangitikei river mouth. It was slow moving water, very wide and very deep. We rowed out, just to please the girls we were with I guess, I got in to have a swim and the fellow I was with was standing up and couldn’t make up his mind whether to get in or not. It was a flat bottomed boat and I had my feet and hands on the boat, so I pushed the boat and he went arse over into the water. He started to drift behind the boat because the tide was starting to go out, I was just swimming around thinking there was nothing wrong. He yelled to me “I can’t make it.”  I thought oh shit. He could swim but not very well and he couldn’t get back to the boat. I yelled to the girls to get the anchor up and I swam back to the boat, hopped in and grabbed the oars and rowed over to him.  I missed him but got an oar out to him and managed to pull him over to the side of the boat. Frank, he came from Napier and was a nice fellow, hung onto the side, but couldn’t get in. It was about that stage I went into shock, when I realised what I’d done, I nearly drowned a person by being foolish. His parents had a cleaning business in Napier, later he went to the Middle-East with the army and wrote to me once. He got through the war. I was twenty at the time. That was my first wake up. Later in the war, my mate Smithy had a similar thing flying. He went up on this height climb. He turned his oxygen on but it hadn’t been connected to the bottle. He remembered being at about 20,000 feet, when a Spit goes out of control, it will do a loop, well he didn’t know how many loops he did before he came back too.

A lot of people got killed or badly injured in accidents, in one year of fighter control there were 11,000 accidents alone… all preventable.

sleepingAbove: Me Sleeping, you felt tired a lot, all the fresh air

Next I was posted up the East Coast of England to Martlesham Heath, just out of Ipswich, and joined 132 Squadron there.

 

132 Squadron, Martlesham   30 Nov 1942

132 crest withou BG

Crest of 132 Squadron, motto “Cave Leopardum” (Beware the Leopard)

 

ORB 29 Nov 1942Above: ORB stating J. Caulton’s arrival from 616 Squadron 29th Nov 1942.

 

Brief History of 132 Squadron (“City of Bombay”) up until J.J Caulton joined in on 29th Nov 1942.

132 Squadron was officially re-formed as a Fighter unit on the 7th July 1941 in Peterhead, Scotland. This was well after the heated air battles of the Battle of Britain ending in October 1940. Instead of swarms of German aircraft over England, only the occasional few enemy aircraft were seen engaged in “hit and run” bombing on shipping or factories in and around England. Up until the 6th Oct 1942 the Squadron had only carried out defensive operations protecting shipping and “scrambles” intercepting these occasional Bandits. On this day however 132 became offensive and ventured from a Base at Horncastle just east of London to the French coast near Dunkirk to carry out shipping reconnaissance and encountered flak for the first time. Then on the 17th Nov 1942, 132 carried out its first “Rhubarb*” crossing the French coast and attacking Trains, Flak positions, Trucks and Barges.

 

*Rhubarb: This was the British overall designation for any short-range fighter-bomber sweep over part of German-occupied Europe and later in the War, over Germany. The object was to harass German communications by destroying transport in target-of-opportunity attacks, to keep the German defences on a state of constant alert, and to destroy any German fighters sent up to intercept the raiders.

 

ORB nov 1942Above: ORB report from the 17th Nov 1942, 132 Squadron carried out its first “Rhubarb” crossing the French coast and attacking Trains, Flak positions, Trucks and Barges.

 

Typical Squadron Ranks and Structure.

In charge of a Wing (in this case usually 132 Squadron and 602 Squadron when both operating from the same airfield) was the Wing Commander. Each Squadron then had a Squadron Leader.

Like most, 132 Squadron then had “Commanding” Officers (C/O) or Flight Commander that was usually of the rank of Flight Lieutenant and was arranged in two “Flights”, Flights A and B. Squadron Leaders could also “lead” a Flight or Squadron for a particular operation.

Each “Flight Commander” had around 10 pilots underneath them.

132 was known as an RAF “Mixed Squadron” having British, New Zealand, Czech, Polish, Australian, Canadian, New Zealand, Norwegian and coloured pilots from the West Indies among others.

Below for reference are typical RAF Airforce Squadron ranks in order from higher to lower:

Wing Commander

Squadron Leader

Flight Lieutenant

Flying Officer

Pilot Officer (Commissioned Officer)

Flight Sergeant

Sergeant

 

 

When I joined the squadron (29th Nov 1942) we were doing mainly shipping protection and convoy patrols and the occasional scramble flying Mk Vb Spitfires. Lots of small ships in convoy coming out of London, going up the East coast. We tried to look after them. I was just the new boy on the block and there wasn’t a lot of action.

 

LodgingsAbove: Back of photo reads: Stayed here for a while before moving under canvas. 500 years old. Supposed to be haunted by a woman, didn’t see her! King Charles the 1st stayed here.

 

ORB A & B FlightAbove:  List of Flight “A” and “B” Pilots Dec 1942 showing British, Australian, New Zealand and West Indian Pilots. C/O S/L J.R Ritchie.

 

Things did go wrong on occasions. The Flight Commander Desmond Fopp went out on one of these shipping patrols with this Canadian fellow. It was foggy, pretty dicey sort of weather. You could see the tops of the ships, but it was a bit worrisome in bad weather. They were not far up the coast from the Thames and this 190 (Focke-Wulf) came across to bomb the convoy. It popped out of the cloud, saw two aircraft, shot the Canadian down (Sgt R.A Carr) then dropped his bomb and buggered off.

 

1st Dec 1942, ORB’s note:  

Two Spitfires Vb’s, yellow section F/Lt D. Fopp (Yellow 1) and Sgt R.A. Carr (Yellow 2) were airborne from Martleshem Heath at 15:40 hours. The weather had closed down to 10/10 cloud at 2000ft and visibility was limited by misty rain 1 to 2 miles. At about 16:20 hours the section was told by Debden Controller that a bandit was approaching from the South, no height was given. About 10 minutes later when yellow section had just turned to the rear of the convoy approximately 6 miles due East of Orfordness and was flying on the starboard side at 1500 to 2000ft with Sgt Carr 100 yds to starboard and 200 yds behind yellow 1 at the same height, Yellow 1 saw a F.W. 190 go past his tail and carry out a diving attack on his No.2 from 30 degrees astern. Yellow 1 did a steep turn to the right towards the tail of the enemy aircraft (E/A) and saw yellow 2 pull up towards the convoy with smoke coming from his tail. Yellow 2 was not seen again by anyone and is reported missing believed killed.  Yellow 1 chased the bandit for about 5 minutes but was not able to get closer than 400 yards. The enemy aircraft jettisoned his bomb and dived down to 200 ft heading south east and weaving. Three 2 second bursts from dead astern caused the E/A to emit a puff of black smoke on each occasion but no hits appeared to register. Yellow 1 turned back for lack of fuel and reported that he could not contact his No.2.

 

After that “Des” (Fopp) said to me “John, you’re my number two” so I got moved up a notch and became the flight commander’s number two (wingman).

Des was my Flight Commander, an Australian. He still had his Australian uniform, but he’d been in the RAF from the time of the Battle of France, before Dunkirk, and he was in the Battle of Britain. He got burnt there, quite successful and a skilled pilot. He was a gruff old bugger, old……I thought he was about 10 years older, he had a moustache and face burns, but it turns out he was younger.

 

Fopp

Above: Desmond Fopp in his Spitfire FF-A, “Harbinger of Doom!” whilst on 132 Squadron in 1943. Fopp joined 132 on 12 Nov 1941.

Photo Credit: Michael Fopp – www.michaelfopptalks.com

For more history on Desmond Fopp. DFC see http://www.bbm.org.uk/airmen/Fopp

 

Because I moved up, there was this one Spit on the squadron (Mk Vb) that had a De-Havilland prop, a metal prop that no one wanted to fly because it threw a bit of oil, so I claimed that… a junior pilot getting his own airplane!, before that you got whatever spare plane was given to you on the day. It was slow to wind up because of the big metal prop, it was slightly longer than the wooden ones, not many had them for some reason, once it did wind up, seemed to go faster than the others.  It was FF-G, the rego came over with you when you changed aircraft for good. I don’t know why they did that, I never asked, another something I didn’t have to worry about. It was an interesting life.

 

FFG 1

Above and below: John. J Caulton in a well worn Spitfire MkV with 132 Squadron rego “FF”

FFG 2

 

The rest of December was quiet for me, daily shipping protection. We flew most days. Some days we were up 2 or 3 times for an hour to an hour and a half.  Sometimes just in pairs or others in groups of four or six. When we came back usually others in our Squadron went out, we swapped over like that.

 

Under canvasAbove: This is us under canvas, you got no bedding just a ground sheet, bloody cold. Back of photo reads: “So this is home and yes what we have been living in for the last 6 months”.

 

Under canvas 2Above: Guy with a hat on was the doctor, other fellow with a cap, a Norwegian and he was the intelligence officer, and he wasn’t very intelligent.

 

Logbook Dec 42

 

taking it easyAbove: Back of photo reads “taking it easy between flights”. John .J Caulton front left and Frank Woolley far right.

 

Frank WoolleyAbove: Another photo of Frank Woolley, “he was quite a character”. (E. Raynor to the left). Before Frank came to us he had been flying out in Iraq where some sort of local uprising was going on. He got an award out there flying bi-planes I think, Hawker Hinds.  

 

Jan and Feb 1943

Some of the Squadron headed into France and Belgium, but as the new boy, I along with a few others, were still on daily shipping protection. They kept us back to get our experience up.

Logbook Jan 43

28th Jan 1943, ORB’s note:

 Last seen attacking Barges in the Ypres Channel, Belgium where he and F/O Burges were opened up on by Bofors guns. After which Burges aircraft was badly damaged and he bailed out into the sea on the way back, 30 miles off England and was rescued by a destroyer.  F/O Hammond was not heard from and could not be contacted on R/T after the attack, assume killed…..Keen regret is felt in the Squadron at the loss of F/O B.J Hammond, an excellent pilot and an exceptionally keen and steady type.

(Later on the 17th Feb 1943, ORB’s noted: “In the evening a signal from the Air Ministry delighted the Squadron with the news that F/O B.J Hammond was still alive, being a prisoner of war and only slightly wounded.)

 

30 Jan 1943, ORB’s noted:

Since arriving at Martlesham Heath on 23rd September 1942, the Squadron has 26 pilots—13 officers and 13 sergeants, most of them going overseas. They come and go so rapidly that a system of labelling is contemplated to assist recognition.

 

31 Jan 1943, Interesting note from the Squadron Summary of Events for this day:

During the month a modification was carried out on one of the Spits for experimental purposes. The wing tips were removed, which increased the all out speed by about 10 m.p.h and reduced maneuverability; landing speed remained practically the same. Permission was also obtained from the Group to remove outboard machine guns. The first aircraft to be done was the C.O’s. It was found that tighter turns could be done, and it was felt that the slight reduction in firepower was more than off-set by this advantage.

 

CommissionAbove: NZ Air Department’s announcement of promotions. John J. Caulton promoted from Sergeant to Pilot Officer 12th Feb 1943 (as termed “commissioned”). Note his middle name was Jeremiah but this was later shortened to Jeremy.

 

Chapter 6 – “Exercise Bombay”

 

Official Intelligence Officer report of the exercise below which J.J Caulton acquired a copy of:

 

EXERCISE “BOMBAY”

When news got around at Martlesham that 132 (Bombay) squadron were organising another Exercise Bombay, many others expressed a keen desire to join the fun. Pilots of the 182 (Typhoon) Squadron, 277 Air/Sea Rescue Squadron and 1438 Gunnery Flight, plus several F/Sgts of the ground crews, brought the total of escapers to 44.

The first party left the ‘drome at 1400 hours, February 19th, in a closed coach, followed half an hour later by the second batch. They were dropped in pairs in a wide flung area six miles from base, armed only with a pocket compass and 2d.

As pilots on the previous Exercise considered it “just too easy”, this time the hunt was fast and furious.  Laid on by the Station Intelligence Officer, the country was infested by supplementary police patrols on bicycles, on foot, and in cars. The civilian populace had been warned by the police to be alert and co-operate, and the Home Guard were out in force, together with several hundred R.A.F Regt personnel with armoured cars, “jeeps”, binoculars, bicycles and on foot.  So energetic was the hunt that only eight of the 44 succeeded in making 132 dispersal without being caught.

Five minutes after the 132 Squadron I.O. returned with the first empty coach he was joined in dispersal at 1515 hours by F/Sgt Raeder (Norwegian) and Sgt. Caulton (New Zealand), of 132 Squadron. Outside dispersal was a high-geared, high-seater Dodge tonner. The sergeants after evading a Home Guard immediately after being dropped acquired a truck in which the driver had conveniently left the ignition key. Driving away from the American Air Corps construction camp, they cheerfully saluted a Home Guard officer and a Policeman.  It is understood that the language of the truck driver (the Sgt of the Guard) and the comments of his Commanding Officer, were equally remarkable – as were the smiles of the Master Sgt and his buddy who later collected the vehicle.

Another pair who successfully evaded capture were F/O Lowey and F/O Snowdon (182). After an unsuccessful attempt to back an Austin 7 from a private garage, they commandeered a bakers van in the village of Grundesborough. Abandoning the van on the ‘drome outskirts they crawled along a ditch and through the barbwire of the northern boundary.

There were no repercussions re van, the owner and the driver being informed by a Police Inspector that they would be lucky to evade a prosecution.

P/O Calder (Australian) and F/O Vise, of 132, attempted a take-off from Debach in a 3 ton lorry loaded with stones. But when taxiing on a sharp turn with flaps down the vehicle became bogged in mud up to the differential. After abandoning their lorry the pair were caught near Martlesham Creek where they were trapped in marshland by R.A.F. Regt patrols who fired blanks.

Sgts. Coxhead and Bubes (182) had a most successful sortie, penetrating the Aerodrome defences with 4 minutes to spare before the Exercise ended.

Another pair who successfully made base in reasonably good condition were F/O McMane(?) (182) and F/O Clearly (1438), two Canadian’s who broke one rule by taking a bus ride on the main road before climbing through the barbwire of the southern boundary. Seated in front of them on the bus was an unsuspecting R.A.F. Regt type escorting home a captured pilot.

After a hectic chase near the ‘drome four pilots F/O Burges and F/O Wooley D.F.C. (132) and Sgts Castle and Hufton (182) were captured by the police inspector, who trapped the first pair against Martlesham Creek, and the others in a sewage swamp. The four returned to dispersal in the inspectors car.

In the same neighbourhood S/Ldr Pugh and F/Lt Mariak (182) were hounded down by R.A.F. Regt patrols after a hue and cry was raised by 5 column schoolchildren, of whom the S/Ldr nestling in a ditch of brambles took a poor view.

Early in the Exercise Sgts Trigg and Ellison (132) were caught by a policeman co-operating with Home Guard and a truck. Sgt Trigg leant out of the lorry and made a getaway but was later rounded up by R.A.F Regt patrols. After his escape Ellison was handcuffed to the policeman and taken to Otley police station. For some time the “Bobby” failed to locate his keys, but after this the lone Sgt Ellison was entertained to tea and cribbage until sent for.

Others caught by police patrols on bicycles included Sgts Rae, Swindlehurst, Dench and Weekes. (132), after they had been chased by farmers H.G.’s. They were handed over to an R.A.F. Regt armoured patrol.

F/Sgt Gilbert and Sgt Pullin (132) were picked up by police and lodged in Grundesborough Police Station from which they were bailed out by their Adjt. later in the day.

All the remainder were caught within a mile of the ‘drome either by R.A.F. Regt, or Home Guard patrols and escorted to base in armoured cars.

 

LJ Gauleard  F/O

Intelligence Officer

No 132 Squadron R.A.F.

 

 

They took us out into the country side in a bus with blacked out windows so we didn’t know where we were going. It was very flat country up in Norfolk.

The Airforce had let the local police, the home guard and even the boy scouts know to be on the lookout for suspicious people. They dropped us off in one’s or two’s and you had to find your way home. You had two pennies to ring up at a phone box if no one found you and you couldn’t get home.

As soon as the bus stopped, I got out of the bus with Bjorn and there was a policeman right where we got off. He asked us for our identity papers, we weren’t supposed to speak English but I said, hey you’re a bit too soon aren’t you? I gave this fellow Bjorn who was with me a push and said let’s go! We ran off cross country over a field, the policeman didn’t seem to give chase, I guess he had easier picking with the rest of the bus.

We came across this aerodrome under construction by the Americans. There were about 6 or 7 vehicles lined up. We went along this row of vehicles, the first one was a Jeep but had no key in it. The next was a Dodge 1 ton truck and it had keys, I said “lets go!”  It had cut down doors and a winch on the front. We took off, I didn’t know what bloody gear I was in, it had all sorts of gears. We had to get out of the construction area which we had a little difficulty getting out, then we got on the main road and we were away. We drove back through countryside I’d never seen before and enjoyed the highlight of driving it. Eventually found our way back to camp, Martlesham Heath. We went through the back gate, there was a dozy century reading a book, we waved to him and he waved back. We drove up to the hut that was headquarters and the bus that had taken us all out had just arrived back. The old intelligence officer said where did you fellows come from? I said have a look through the window, there was a big white Star on the door of the truck. He said, you’re not supposed to do that, I said it had keys in it, he said “fair game”, because every vehicle was supposed to be immobilized, in case the enemy was trying to escape. One of our guys stole a bakers van, some walked, some got shot at by farmers with shotguns and had to swim creeks. A couple days later some Yanks from the Marauder air force base that was under construction, came to collect the truck and take it back as our intelligence office had been ringing around trying to find out who owned it. We were called up to tell them what happened, we told them that the key was in the car, so away we went. It was all written up in an exercise report. We were both Sergeants at the time.

 

Escape photoAbove: My Escape photo that we carried in case we got shot down and had to forge identity papers. Those were meant to be French civilian clothes.

 

This fellow that was with me Bjorn Raeder, he was an unusual character in the fact that he was Norwegian, but he was half German because his uncle was Erich Raeder the German Navy Admiral. After the First World War there was a lot of poverty, shortage of food and a lot of German kids were brought up in Norway. He had fought as a ski trooper against the Russians in Finland, before he had arrived over to England, I saw some of the photographs he took there, because the Fins had knocked the Russians back in the very early part, before “Dieppe”, the war in France, they were first in the war really (in November 1939) called the “winter war”. Bjorn was saying they did not know what to do with all the dead, so they were piling them in heaps and burning them, he told me that was a bit unsettling as the bodies would heat up and gurgle as the air expanded in them, some of them moved and looked like they could have still been alive. I remember seeing photos of them that he had brought back.

 

Bjorn and about 5 others had escaped Norway in an open boat, from Norway to the Shetlands. The Norwegians were great types, they had done an “Outward Bound” to get across, missing coastal patrols. He got shot down at one stage (May 1943) and got back to England through Spain.

 

Group 132 photo 1Above, back of photo reads “Some of the boys in front of my Spit. There aren’t any N.Zer’s. An Australian, a Norwegian, a Scotsman and five Englishmen. Quite a crowd”. (Martleshem Heath).

J.J Caulton in front row, second from the right. Bjorn Raeder behind him with hand on John’s Life preserver. Frank Woolley to the left of Bjorn. Possibly Australian Ian Markwell in front row, far right beside John.

 

23rd Feb 1943, ORB’s noted:

In the afternoon the Squadron visited Orfordness experimental station where parties were taken around by three armament civilian experts. They were introduced to bullet and cannon riddled German and British Aircraft and shown the effect of different types of ammunition.

 

Another time Bjorn and I were at Orfordness airfield that had a German ME109, to see what parts should be hit, to destroy it. No wings just the fuselage, Bjorn got in the cockpit seat to see what would happen if he tried to start it, the motor turned over, it had a battery in it. He said keep your eyes open, might be a cheap way home. If you could get one started on an airfield (meaning you could escape if shot down). I did hear that someone had escaped and flown a small plane, like a Tiger Moth back to England, better than walking!

Bjorn got posted to 332 “Norwegian” Squadron, but he did come visit us from time to time. He was a quiet fellow, nice bloke. He got killed about 19 days before the war ended.

I met some interesting people, different, I thought Norwegians were great fellows.

 

Bjorn RaederAbove: Jon Ryg, Jan E Løfsgaard and Bjørn Ræder, all Norwegians. Bjorn flew with 132 Squadron.

Full name: Johan Kristoffer Bjørn Ræder, from Oslo, was shot down in May, 1943, but managed to evade capture and to return to his squadron after a harrowing eight-week journey through the Pyrenees and Gibraltar. He was back on squadron by end of summer 1943. He was shot down and killed in combat in December 1944.

 

I first met Marie Porter (My later wife-to-be) at Martlesham Heath. Marie came from nearby Ipswich. She was in headquarters at Martlesham and worked for the old boy “Wilkie”, who was our Station Commander. He was a First World War pilot.

 

Marie Porter 1

Above and below: Marie Porter in WAAF (Woman’s Auxiliary Air Force) uniform.

Marie Porter 2

 

12th Feb 1943, ORB’s notes:

With effect from to-day the Squadron became non-operational, apart from a section on readiness for aerodrome defence. This was brought about owing to full serviceability of aircraft being required for Exercise “Spartan”.

 

March-April 1943: RAF Zeals

“Exercise Spartan”

Exercise “Spartan” was a British exercise with emphasis on the part of the RAF, to rehearse the liberation of North-West Europe (March 1943).

 The undertaking was the last grand-scale manoeuvre undertaken by the British in the UK before the implementation of ‘Overlord’ and was primarily important for its lessons in the improvement of RAF and Army co-operation.

 Training involved basics like tank and warship recognition, pistol and rifle practice, camping, refuelling and arming of your own aircraft, dinghy drill, in and out at the Ipswich swimming baths. Also practice exercises against British troops and practice scrambles and low-level escorting.

 

Logbook March 43

 

Hurricane 1Above: Example of a “Hurribomber”. Hawker Hurricanes were fitted with 250 or 500 pound bombs and used to bomb small targets in occupied Europe such as anti-aircraft guns and V1 rocket sites. Often protected on these runs by Spitfire escorts.

 

Hurricane 2Above: Example of a Hawker Hurricane II D, fitted with two 40mm cannons, known as a “Tank-busters”. Again often escorted by Spitfires. Photo credit: This is photograph CM 4957 from the collections of the Imperial War Museums.

 

14th Dec 1942 ORB’s note:

The whole of 11 Group were astonished today when they read in the Group Bulletin an item headed “Spit and Polish” “No. 132 Squadron” telling how F/Lt Fopp flying a carefully polished Spit VB had held a F.W 190 for 3/5 minutes clocking 350 I.A (indicated air speed) at 200 feet.

Note: FW190 were 25-35 m.p.h faster than Spitfire VB’s at all heights and it was not until the Mark IX Spitfire that the odds were more even.

 

April-May 1943: RAF Eastchurch (Isle of Sheppy)

 

logbook April 43

 

Then we got a new C/O, we had one or two debacles and mess-ups, I could go on for hours, we used to have a formation of flying for combat which was old fashioned. There were 12 aircraft and they stepped you down in fours, this is on operations! Three lots of fours, by the time you kept station you couldn’t see what was bloody happening. I don’t know how long afterwards but they changed it to what they called finger four. But when we first started off it was all this bloody step down, in fact my first trip I nearly got bloody shot down. I’m talking about actual operations over France, escorts, not shipping patrols, cause they were just stooge (easy) jobs really.

We went over, (17th April) and at this stage a Spitfire (V) five was inferior to a German FW190, and we got over to France, somewhere over where the invasions took place, that part, and then there were aircraft reported. Because you were in formation, you couldn’t “call your own bit of air” as it were. Just prior to the take-off, this bloody silly boy, with no sense, how the hell they picked these fellows, he came along and said to me, what channel are we on? I said shit don’t ask me I’m trying to remember all the info that we had just got at the briefing, he’d been away doing a bit of painting and hadn’t gone to the briefing. He was an “arty fellow”, so he was on the wrong channel.

Over there, I don’t know what height we were at, about 20 (thousand feet) I suppose, it wasn’t close escort, it wasn’t anything like we had later on, where things became sensible and cohesive. Again the word came out that there were aircraft reported, well that got the eyes working, and being new on that sort of operation you were just easy meat. Someone said he (FW190) was coming down, and he came down and attacked a fellow in my section, and he shot up into one of the other sections to get away. He was quite a nice fellow, had never been out on operations before except out in the Middle East, and then I eventually settled on this aircraft as your head goes around like a bloody castor wheel and you can’t see a thing, later with more experience, you look a bit more savvy after a while and look separately. Next minute I saw this 190 coming down on the boy next to me, I was fascinated, I kept my eye on him, and I gave him a “break” (radio) but of course he wasn’t listening as he was on the wrong channel. There wasn’t strikes all over him but I remember seeing there was one right on his wing tip and then this 190 pulled up and headed my way, I thought, this is serious, you know, it was a wake-up call. I watched him and he pulled up and the last time I saw him he was about 15 foot away from me, and by this time I had broke and gone into a brake away from him, turned 90 degrees, he couldn’t hit me, or would be very unlucky if he hit me, there was this bloody great radial motor right next to me, I though gee, this is a dangerous business! So I pulled round hard and I blacked out, the poor old aircraft got a bit of strain put on it.

The weather over there was a bit different, it was a bit hazy, when you looked out at the sea it was about the same colour, no horizon. I went round and I could hear someone say “he’s still there, he’s coming down again” a lot of information went over the air which frightened more shit out of me. Until I came around and I didn’t know for a second where I was and if I was going back into France or if England was over there and I’d blacked out in the meantime. So I got that sorted out and pulled the nose down hard and pushed the throttle full on and I went out pretty fast, there was no good me hanging around there as I didn’t know where I was and I couldn’t see anyone, suddenly all the aircraft had disappeared. When you push the throttle full forward, they give a bit of a cough, and the old motor you think it’s going to stop! We had an ordinary carb on those days not an injection. I then headed for England as fast as I could, keeping an eye behind me. It was a wake-up call, after that I looked around, quieter and slower.

The boy that got shot beside me got hit in the bum, and he had to bail out, not sure if he was on fire or what, I only saw the first bit. Apparently, a couple of Poles (Polish) were going past and saw him floating down so gave a location back to Air Sea Rescue and they picked him up again which was bloody a waste of time. He was in another world, dreaming. I soon found my way back to an aerodrome, you just head north and you’re in England. I was very inexperienced at that stage and had my own concerns on what to do next, no one gave you any advice, we had this awful V-formation, then later the “finger four” formation, everyone covered everyone else on the same level. It all changed over time.

 

17th April 1943, ORB’s notes:

Afternoon the Squadron training programme was interrupted by the welcome news that we were to take off at 13:00hrs for West Hamnett to take part in an offensive show with the Tangmere wing. In the late afternoon the Squadron with 485 and 610 Squadrons, escorted 12 Ventura’s which successfully and accurately bombed Caen marshalling yards. The bombers returned without loss, but on the return trip three F.W.190’s trailed 132 Squadron, one of which carried out an attack on Yellow section with the result that evasive action was taken by F/O Caulton and F/O Woolley. F/O Armytage was shot down and the section Leader F/Lt Fopp found himself stooging along alone. F/O Armytage bailed out at 1,500 ft and was quickly picked up by a Walrus of 277 Squadron and taken to Hospital, Shoreman, none the worse for his experience apart from a shell-splinter in his thigh. His dinghy failed to inflate, but he was kept afloat by his Mae West and was orbited by a section of Polish pilots until the Walrus turned up.

 

WalrusAbove: Example of a Supermarine Walrus air-sea rescue aircraft picking up a downed pilot.

 

ORB 17 April 43Above: ORB from 17th April 1943 stating F/O Armitage (Armytage) shot down.

 

We were over to another station, Bobby (Robert) Fowles had this accident with another aircraft and been killed, both of them had. I remember being told about the crash, one of the Flight Commanders, a bloody useless one at that, had gone over from another squadron to investigate. I think Bobby was beheaded and the Flight Commander said, I’d better not go over there to the scene of the accident as it wasn’t good.

R Fowles 1Above: My good friend Bobby (Robert) Fowles (# 141522)
22 Nov 1942 R J Fowles posted to squadron from No.57 OTU.
Killed during “camera gunning” training on the 14 April 1943, aged 20.

 

Poor old Bob, he was like his father, you see a trait in a person. His father John was one of those fellows that sort of was a “slow take” and Bobby was like that too. He wasn’t bloody aware. I told him once, I said you’re a bloody “fingo job” (if you’ve got your finger up your arse you can’t do anything fast).

Bobby was a Londoner and his father worked on the railway. He was quite knowledgeable, but for anything to happen there was a bit of a lag you know, and Bobby was like that. And sure enough it happened, we were quite good mates, we were both Sergeants, and when I first started he came up to me. It was a bit of a clicky outfit. He had joined the squadron the month before me, he made himself known to me and showed me around the ropes, which I was very grateful for. We were actually commissioned in the same period of time.

When the accident happened, he took off and they were just doing camera gunning, training, it was assessed, you had the 16mm gun camera film that took photos when you pressed the trigger. A couple of you would go up together and you practice tail chasing (dogfighting). This day he and this fellow “Munson” an Aussie went up and they took turns, another aircraft saw them so he joined in, and they chased him away, Bob and Lorry came in on Munson and they came together side by side, absolutely “blank” with the wing and hit each other at low level. I didn’t see it happen, I was on the Isle of Sheppey at the time.

 

R Fowles 2Above: P/O Bobby Fowles center in full flight gear with Sgt E. Raynor to the right.

 

R Fowles 3Above: Back of photo reads: “Some of the boys, the one marked with a cross is my best mate Fowles, killed. We got our commission together, were pals.

Woolley, Sumpter, Reid with rifle, Fowles, Weekes (from Barbados). I flew with Weekes quite a bit. Weekes told me “after the war you come to Trinidad and I’ll show you the celebrations”.

 

I had the job to see the parents, John and Virtue, ordinary London home. I went with a high-ranking Officer, not from our squadron, to see what the parents wanted in the way of a funeral. That was a disaster. You had an option, a private funeral or a military funeral or a semi-military funeral. So I went up with this fellow and of course the parents were heartbroken, they had lost a son through illness previously and Bobby was the last son. He sort of made the grade and all the rest of it, and they were heartbroken. They made the place very welcome for me to come to any time, and I can’t remember how many times I went down there, it was just a home away from service life. I felt I was filling a gap for them in some form or another.

On the way the fellow I had been with had been stationed at West Malling, and he knew most of them so he said we’ll call in for breakfast, which we did and they were all talking about this aircraft and what had happened in the night. These FW190 fighters had come across in the night carrying a 500 pound bomb each. They would come over to London and drop a bomb anywhere. Well this night they got driven out by the anti-aircraft fire and at some stage they mistook the river Thames where it widens, very wide about 90 miles, as the English Channel. On the southern side of the channel they thought they had crossed into France so called up on the radio for homing. They had another service in England called the “Y” service. It was all German speakers, mainly girls, they heard this and completely blocked his radio out, I don’t know how they did this, but the Germans couldn’t reach their own base. The “Y” then called operations and said we have 4 aircraft that had lost their way. They had German speakers as well and gave the 190’s a course to “West Malling” in Kent. Operations didn’t tell Eastchurch and they were doing some night flying on Mosquitos. There’s always someone down the end in a big wagon to give them a red light at the end of the runway in case things go wrong. So this first 190 came in and landed and the wagon rang up the watch office and said that a Miles Master had landed as that is what he thought it was, and the ground crew came out to wave the aircraft over to a parking spot near the hangars. An Erk jumped up on the wing to help the pilot out of his harness and then he saw bloody black crosses on the wings. The Erk knocked the pilot over the head with the torch he had in his hand. One of the ground crew ran down to the wagon and told the fellow to get his aircraft buttoned up, that was a FW190! The other 190 came into land, panic took over the ground and they switched off the runway lights. The little armoured car drove off down the runway where the second 190 was blasting its engine trying to get ground attention so it could be waved in to park. The armoured car opened fire on the aircraft, the pilot got out and ran, but I think he got shot in the legs. The third went over the airfield and landed in a wood, and the fourth crash landed before the airstrip as all the lights had been turned off. It was a bit of a shambles, they got one good aircraft out of the four.

The 190 was sprayed with oil and then covered in soot for night fighting.

We went out to take a look around the 190. I got up on the wing to have a look in the cockpit which was pretty smart, but in doing so got covered in soot on my good uniform. To be there the next day was quite amazing.

 

FW190 West MallingAbove: Focke Wulf Fw 190A. Mistakenly landed at RAF West Malling by Otto Bechtold of 7./SKG10, 17 April 1943. Note the aircraft is covered in oil and soot to aid night camouflage.

 

An Australian Henry Lacy Smith, or “Smithy” as we knew him, joined the Squadron (19 April 1943) from No. 332 (Norwegian) Squadron. He became my roommate along with Burt Collings. We were based at Eastchurch. He came to us and I befriended him because he’d been in a bit of strife beforehand. He’d broken a few Spitfires. The first one they sent him to North Africa so there wouldn’t be an inquiry after he ran into some goal posts. The station commander was a keen rugby player and had put up some posts, which shouldn’t have been anywhere near an airfield. He was a great mate really, him and Burt Collings. (Burt just going a few years back, died around 2010). Smithy got to North Africa and he was drinking Hooch which was made from wood alcohol that the local Arabs were selling. After a while his sight got affected and he started missing doorways by a couple of feet, so they sent him back to England. That’s when he came to us.

 

Smithy and Me 1Above: Me and Smithy with his dog “Butch”. (Later in late 1943, Detling)

 

Poor old Smithy, we were down in this place in southern England. It was just a little exercise to look for the Airforce-Army at the time, a RAF regiment and they were all around the flat somewhere, we just had to find them and then go around and beat them up, well fly very low, it was a lot of fun. All this industrial haze started to move in from just north of the river. I think there was four of us flying, so I called up the other numbers and said, “go back now”. I went back and I landed first, then I turned around to look at Smithy landing and there were just bits of prop and under panels flying everywhere, dust and corruption! I thought oh dear he has only just joined the squadron. I went and parked, by this time he’d walked in and the C/O gave him a bloody balling out in front of everyone. I was watching him and I was about to step in because he came very close to whacking the C/O, he had a bit of a short fuse and I was ready to step in as if you struck an Officer, you’d be court marshalled. The C/O had been over to have a look and said to Smithy “why did you put the undercarriage level down afterwards?” meaning that he had forgot and landed without putting down the landing gear. But what had actually happened was he had just put the undercarriage handle down too fast and it hadn’t given the hydraulics enough time to “turn the pins”. There was a Claxton horn behind your ear and also a couple of pegs in the wing and he didn’t see or hear any of those and next minute he’s down and had landed and this fellow Richie the C/O swore at him and Smithy was just boiling. I thought oh my god he’ll be gone. Anyway, that all eventually cleared, he had to walk up to London, a walking job to make him remember, that was his punishment, plus big red marks in the back of his logbook and what had happened. That all blew over and he came back.

Then later on, at an airfield just near there he came into land, he was supposed to wear glasses, but he didn’t always wear them. He came in this day and knocked one whole landing gear oleo leg off along with the wheel. He had misjudged the ground and had a hard landing and bounced back up, so he went around and landed, he kept the wing tip off the ground on that side until it was nearly at the end of the runway and set it down without doing any other damage. It was a perfect landing but another “black” (mistake) in his logbook.

His next “black” was down at Detling, he came in and landed, we were doing longer trips and you had to get off the runway quick as aircraft would be running out of fuel. We had four aircraft on this very short strip, one turning off the top, one running up, one running on and the other about to land on. It was easy enough, but this pilot from Barbados (Weekes) didn’t move out of the way quick enough and Smithy wound right up across the back of this one in front of him, and the prop broke off of course which was lucky as the front of Smithy’s plane went right over the cockpit. I didn’t see it, but they reckoned this fellow “Weekes” who was dark from Barbados, stepped out a white man.

Then Smithy knocked one down, he got a F.W 190, the day Collie was shot down, there was a bit of a mix up and there were aircraft all around the bloody air, you didn’t know which was which.

 

Smithy FFGAbove: Smithy and his little dog “Butch” named after the American pilot we met. Sitting in my Spit’ FF-G. See the name “Heather” on the cockpit, that’s after a girlfriend of mine at one stage.

Smithy and Me 2Above: Another photo of Smithy and me, this time looking a bit staged.

17th May 1943, ORB’s notes:

This morning a signal gave the news that we move to Digby on the 18th May. This news was quite welcome if it meant leaving our tent homes, but not going out of 11 group, and having to leave our own airplanes was not so good. A party took place that night, the idea being that Eastchurch should remember 132 squadron.

 

May-June 1943: RAF Perranporth

 

18th May 1943, ORB’s notes:

Everything ready to leave for Digby, when another signal sends us to Perranporth, to take over 65 Squadrons machines and a mixture of Vb’s and Vc’s. First impressions are good, and it was difficult to get F/L D. Fopp to eat his food as he could not get used to tablecloths. After dinner the Squadron was introduced to “The Stork Club”, and first impressions were confirmed.

 

Logbook May 43

 

29th May 1943, ORB’s note:

Weather good. The Squadron were again airborne with the wing at 17:00 hours to do a medium close escort to approximately 150 Fortresses on their return from St Nazaire. The wing set course from Dodman Point on a steady climb to 16,000 feet making landfall North of Lannion. The Fortresses were picked up about five miles inland, slight opposition by seven F.W. 190’s was encountered, their abortive attacks were discouraged by two sections of 610 Squadron. The wing left the Fortresses after making landfall at Portland Bill and landed to refuel at Middle Wallop, landing back at base at 20.10 hours. Pilots engaged in this operation were F/L G.S.Reid, F/L D.Fopp, F/O V.J.Sumpter, F/O D.W.Burgess, P/O H.V.Thompson, F/O H.L.Smith, F/O M.F Armytage, P/O J.Caulton, Sgt. Pullen, R. Sgt. Rae, J. and Sgt Thomlinson, E.

Note: Of the 169 B-17 Fortresses (Bombers) on their return from bombing Submarine pens in St. Nazaire. (France), a total of eight “Forts” were lost during the raid.

 

We did a lot of escorting protecting American bombers, we started off with about 18 American bombers either from up Essex or Norfolk way, on the eastern side.

I went out one day to escort some bombers back, they were Liberators. I saw a straggler and closed in to have a look and the waist gunners opened up on me.  I could see the flashers so moved away from him pretty smart, we had no contact (radio) with them so we just swore at them. We didn’t leave them, just moved further way. Hah, they were probably after a “claim” – at one stage the Bombers had claimed to shoot down more German aircraft than Germany had produced! It’s easy enough to see why, there’s about 8 gunners and when something came close, they all opened up on it, if it went down they all claimed for it. But they saw a lot of action and got all hell knocked out of them. We could see the raids, they were quite big.

 

LiberatorAbove: Example of a B-24 Liberator bomber that 132 Squadron routinely escorted into or out of France and Holland.

 

Another time we escorted 3 Fortresses and saw some go down. We didn’t escort them very far as we didn’t have the range. The majority flew in groups of 18 at the start, and the groups grew bigger and bigger. The Marauders we escorted didn’t have much trouble as by this time most of the German fighters were back in Germany and we had superior numbers. We sort of had free range, you had to be aware as you never knew what could happen next, it was a lot of fun in lots of ways, you were far enough away from things, sometimes you saw the occasional unusual happening. I saw a Marauder get hit from a distance, they took off out of it, and a long way away there was these little round blobs which were parachutes – while I was looking at one of them, I thought, that’s moving a lot. The chute was moving around and then it suddenly dropped faster than the others and I realised that his chute must have been burning, then it plummeted. That was the thing of the times really, it didn’t happen every day, but I’d never forget that, all you could say was poor bastard.

 

B-17Above: Example of B-17 Flying Fortress that 132 Squadron routinely escorted into or out of France and Holland.

 

Later if we were doing close escorts we went down to a place called Dungeness, a point of land, where we waited for our own “technical air force” or light bombers, we would wait for them there and then escort them at low level across. That was a very tight formation, very tense too, you are waiting around this area and I remember this one time we were there, how many of the escorts, I’d be guessing, but it looked like 5 or 6 squadrons all low down flying around waiting for the bombers to arrive. We were about 500 feet off the ground and being so close if you ran into turbulence from the other squadron going around, it was very tense.  When they arrived we escorted them across and they spread out while they were over the target area, not left them but got away from the intensity of it. Sometimes there was a fair bit of flak but sometimes they got away with it without a rough time too. We were sort of free roamers to a certain amount, where they kept on a track to the target. It depended on your leader, what sort of position you got in the escort. Some escorts were exciting, others could be pretty bland really.

Once flying with some bombers to the edge of France, we were escorting them home, there had been no problems, then all of a sudden without any warning someone saw a B-25 bomber beside them heave up into the air and its tail fell off and it dropped from the sky. There was absolute silence on the radio… and then someone said, “do you smell the roses”, no one replied.

 

B-25Above: Example of a B-25 Mitchell bomber that 132 Squadron routinely escorted into and out of France and Holland.

 

 

31 May 43 ORB

31st May 1943, ORB’s (above) note:

Low cloud and mist, but the Squadron managed to get to Exeter by going around the coast. In company with 610 Squadron we were airborne at 10:50 hours to act as close escort to six Ventura’s bombing the Power Station at Cherbourg. Picking up the (RAF) Ibsley wing who acted as top cover, we set course at zero feet. On crossing the coast, the weather improved, but about fifteen miles out Red Three had R/T trouble, and in company with Red Four returned, pilots F/O M.F.Armytage and Sgt Rayner, E. Climbing to 12,000 feet over the target, bombing was carried out and we made base in a shallow dive. No enemy aircraft were seen, but flak was quite heavy over the target. F/Sgt Markwell, I in Spitfire 5C EE683 was hit in the port wing, but was able to return O.K. Landed at Exeter at 12.25 hours.

Pilots engaged in this operation were F/L G.S Reid, F/L D.Fopp, F/O V.J Sumpter, F/O D.W. Burgess, F/O F.G Woolley, DFC, F/O M.F Armytage, P/O E.B Overton, P/O J.Caulton, F/Sgt. Markwell, J, F/Stg. Munson, R, Sgt Raynor,E, Sgt Pullen, R. Weather closed in, but we got back to base by 21.50 hours.

 

VenturaAbove: Example of USAF Ventura Bombers that 132 Squadron routinely escorted into and out of France and Holland.

 

ReidAbove, back of photo reads: G.S Reid Commander of ”A” Flight at that time. To the right is the other flight Commander (name unknown)

 

June-July 1943: RAF Gravesend

 

Logbook June 43

Beam Approach Training was designed so pilots flying by instrument only could be guided back and land by listening to a steady “tone” that would drop off if the pilot was not “on –line”. 

 

17th June 1943 ORB’s note:

News came through that the Squadron were to move to Gravesend to form part of No. 125 Airfield.

 

19th June 1943 ORB’s note:

Finally settled that we were to leave our aircraft at Perranporth and take over the aircraft of No. 302 Polish Squadron at Gravesend. The Squadron made a farewell visit to the Stork Club where they had spent many happy leisure hours.

 

20th June 1943, ORB’s note:

The pilots and the Adjutant and Spy flew in two Harrows to Gravesend. The advanced party of ground crew fly in a third Harrow. The boys got settled in and enjoyed themselves as a new bar was opened in the mess and there was free beer on the house.

 

HarrowAbove: An example of a “Harrow” aircraft sometimes used to transport pilots and equipment when moving airfields.

 

21st June 1943, ORB’s note:

A day of inspection of the new dispersal and getting house in order. The aircraft proved to be Spitfire VB LF with cropped blowers and seen to be in fairly good condition except for some modifications. The set-up of the Airfield is very vague and only one or two of the Airfield officers have arrived.

 

ORB 30 June 43Above: ORB’s 30th June 1943, Henry Lacy Smith coming into land struck some bad ground and his undercarriage collapsed. He was uninjured but the aircraft was cat “AC” (Repair is beyond the unit capacity)

 

 

July-October 1943: RAF Newchurch (Romney Marsh)

 

3 July 1943, ORB’s note:

The aircraft flew to the new airfield at Newchurch. The rest of the night was spent organising tents and dispersal and putting camouflage nets on the aircraft.

 

Bert Collings was a roommate with me and Smithy. We lived under canvas in the Summer, down at Romney Marsh. There they were trying to see what they would need in France for temporary airfields, so they were trying coconut matting by the hundreds of yards, they put that on the ground, then steel netting laced with steel strips. There was a big roll of the coconut netting behind a hedge, so we grabbed it for our tent, so we had decent flooring.

 

Newchurch 1Above: At Romney Marsh (Newchurch) Note the “Summerfelt Track” for hardstanding with Grade 1 coconut matting underneath! Lacy Smith in front row left side, looking at the camera. Doc “Everall” with the hat on, closest to the aircraft.

 

 

logbook july 43

 

DouglasAbove: Example of a Douglas A20 “Boston” Light bomber that 132 Squadron routinely escorted into France and Holland.

 

Fopp 2Above: Back of photo reads: Flight Commander Des Fopp. Looks pregnant! Waiting for hot water to boil at Romney Marsh 1944.

 

BathingAbove: J.J Caulton bathing at Romney Marsh (Newchurch). Arthur Weekes, from Barbados in background. We lived under canvas. This is the way of bathing, just a sit in canvas, after you got commissioned you got a bed, and chair, a wash stand, it was all antiquated stuff, this thing stood up and you washed your face in it and then put it down to have a bath in.

 

31 July 1943, ORB’s note:

The morning was again hot and fine with clear sky. Squadron took off at 10:35, to rendezvous with 21 Marauders at Bexhill at 12,000 feet. Ten minutes after take-off Red 1, F/L G.S Reid, returned to base with R/T trouble, F/L Fopp taking over the lead. Rendezvous was made and with the squadron acting as close escort, the formation crossed the French coast at 10,000 feet. Bombers were slightly off course but bombed the aerodrome. While bombing was taking place one Marauder of the centre sections was hit by flak, and four of the crew were seen to bale out.  The remaining bombers quickly regained formation, finished bombing and turned to make for the English coast in a shallow dive crossing at Bexhill, where fighters left and the squadron landed at base at 12:10. No fighters were encountered but heavy accurate flak was experienced over the target. Pilots taking part were F/L G.S Reid, F/L D.Fopp, F/O H.L Smith, F/O R.O Webster, F/O F.G Woolley DFC, F/O B.W Sharpe, P/O J.Caulton, F/Sgt F.McCulloch, F/Sgt D.Stuart, F/Sgt, F. Curtis, F/Sgt D.Watkins, F/Sgt I, Markwell. Squadron took off again at 15:40, their function to close escort to 19 Marauders to bomb Tricquiville. Rendezvous made at Beachy Head, at 12,000 feet, the French Coast was crossed north of the Seine. Bombing was fairly accurate from 10,000 feet, with no interference – The formation turned for home, and on re-crossing the French coast were attacked by a mixture of 10-15 M.E.109’s and F.W.190’s. All bombers returned safely, the squadron claiming two F.W.190’s damaged by F/L D.Fopp & P/O J.Caulton without loss to themselves. F/L D. Fopp was cheated of a destroyed, as both his cannons jammed when the Hun was a sitting bird. F/Sgt J.Hyde drove off an M.E.109, which was coming in to attack P/O J.Caulton but makes no claim. The squadron landed safely at 17:20 hours at Tangmere, and just got back to base as the weather broke with heavy thunder storm. Pilots taking part were F/L G.S Reid, F/L D.Fopp, F/O H.L Smith, F/O R.O Webster, F/O F.G Woolley DFC,   F/O E.B Overton, F/O B.W Sharpe, P/O J.Caulton, F/Sgt F.McCulloch, F/Sgt D.Stuart, F/Sgt D.Watkins, and F/Sgt J. Hyde.

 

Combat report 2Above: Personal Combat Report 31st July 1943.

 

Hyde 1Above: Flight Sergeant James.J Hyde of Trinidad (#1391841), a Spitfire pilot who arrived in Britain in 1942.  Pictured in 1944 with 132 Squadron’s mascot, a dog called ‘Dingo’. Reported missing 25 Sep 1944, tasked with providing aerial cover during the battle of Arnhem. Presumed killed in dog fight over Nijmegan. [Credit: IWM Reference CH11978]

On the 31 July 1943, Caulton made a claim on FW190 during which Hyde possibly saved Caulton’s life when he drove off another ME109 that was about to attack Caulton.

 

 

July 1943, ORB’s noted: Aircraft strength of 17-19 spitfires on hand at any one time.

 

logbook Aug 43

 

 

MarauderAbove: Example of a B26 Marauder bomber that 132 Squadron routinely escorted into France and Holland.

 

ORB 10 AugAbove 10th Aug 1943, ORB’s note “New C/O S/L F.F Colloredo-Mansfeld, DFC arrived and also the new Doc John. D Everall.

 

Then we got rid of these Flight Commanders and got a new C/O, in Aug 1943 we got this Austrian Franz Ferdinand Colloredo-Mansfeld, he was supposed to be on the other side, he was a wonderful C/O, on the ground and in the air, he was explanatory, you heard what we were going to do, he was confident. He was a 33 year old when he got knocked off. He got shot down with us.

 

manfeld 1Above:  Squadron leader Franz Ferdinand Colloredo-Mansfeld in full flight gear, minus one boot!

 

24 Aug 1943 ORB’s note:  

F/L Harry Walmsley D.F.C posted to us from 611 Squadron.

Walmsley 1Above: F/Lt Harold Edward ‘Harry’ Walmsley (British)

Walmsley 2Above: Harry Walmsley’s (D.F.C) impressive end of war record of 9 enemy aircraft destroyed and 47 damaged.

 

 

25 August 1943, ORB’s note:  

C.A Harden NZ 402517 and B.F (Burt) Collings NZ 416860 join from 485 Squadron with no operational experience, both New Zealanders.

 

Harden 1Above: Bob (Robert) Harden NZ 402517 Reported missing believed killed 15th August 1944 at age 22.

During a reconnaissance patrol over Calais in France, Harden last reported that he had been hit by anti-aircraft fire and glycol was seen streaming from his aircraft. His crashed aircraft was later found by advancing troops, but no trace of Harden was ever found.

 

 

28th August 1943, ORB’s note:

Yet another pilot arrives 1391712 F/Sgt C.A Joseph, a Trinidad boy who has 1 FW190 to his credit. Making 32 pilots in the Squadron.

 

Joseph 1Above: Pilot Officer- Collins. A JOSEPH of Trinidad– Photo taken 1943 with 132 Squadron.KIA on 31st December 1944 while on an air operation flying Liege, Aachen, Liege.

 

logbook set 43

 

 

Group 2Above: Most of 132 Squadron in Sep 1943 still had Mk 5 Spits.
Front row: 3rd from left Frank Woolley, 8th – Weekes
On wing: 6th from left – Collins
Standing in front of cockpit – Henry Lacy Smith

 

4th Sep 1943, ORB’s note:

..Flying practice took place before lunch and in the early afternoon, but at 16:30 more serious business, was briefing for a show. Airborne at 17:15, the Squadron led by Wing Commander Yule, were to act as close escort to 36 Marauder’s bombing Coutrai Marshalling yards and rendezvous was made at 12,000 feet at North Foreland to cross the Freach Coast at Neuport. The target was bombed with great success and coming out S.W of Ostend the formation was attacked by approx 25 F.W 190’s. The close escort broke up the attack and few enemy aircraft got through to the bombers who all returned safely. There were some exciting moments for the boys, S/L F.F. Colloredo-Mansfeld D.F.C, F/L Walmsley, F/L A. Tombin and P/O J.Caulton all firing bursts and a tragic moment for F/Sgt I.Markwell who found his gun-button was at “OFF”, when right on the tail of an enemy fighter. The Commanding officer escorted a lone bomber to the English Coast and then returned alone, his No.2 having left him. W/O R.C Harden  made his first operational trip, a good baptism. Pilots taking part were: F/O H.L Smith, P/O J.Caulton, Stg J.Williams, F/L A. Tomblin, W/O C.A Harden, F/Sgt I.Markwell, F/Sgt J.Hyde, S/L F.F.Colloredo-Mansfeld DFC, F/O K.A Darley, F/L H.E Walmsley, Sgt E.Tomlinson.

 

14th Sep 1943, ORB’s note:

Three Spitfire Mark 9b’s arrived this afternoon.

 

18th Sep 1943, ORB notes:

… Squadron was led by Wing Commander Yule. In the afternoon the boys had practice trips in the Spitfire 9’s and two more of these aircraft arrived on the airfield.

 

Bobby Yule was a very nice fellow, he was our station commander, very high ranking fellow that was in the battle of Britain, he was our group commander, he commanded about 2 wings of aircraft.

 

Yule 1Above: Robert (Bob) Duncan Yule NZ 33502

Veteran of the Battle of France and the Battle of Britain. Awarded the Distinguished Flying Cross and Bar for destruction of 8 Enemy aircraft before becoming the Wing Commander of 132 Squadron in 1943 at the age of 23. Post war, tragically killed on the 11th September 1953 when rehearsing for the Battle of Britain flypast over London. His Meteor aircraft collided with another Meteor while he was avoiding a Hurricane. Though the tail of his aircraft was sheared off it is believed that he attempted to steer the aircraft away from populated areas. It came down between rows of buildings.

 

23rd Sep 1943, ORB notes:

Three more Spitfire Mark 9’s arrive, total of nine.

 

27th Sep 1943, ORB’s note:

The Squadron was airborne again at 17:00 hrs in company with No. 602 Squadron to act as rear withdrawal to 72 Marauders bombing Conches aerodrome.  Course was set from base and French Coast crossed at St.Valery to turn in behind the bombers 10 miles west of Rouen. Heavy flak was met at the coast coming out and one bomber received a direct hit, going down in flames. Numbers of enemy aircraft were reported but none were seen.

 

29th & 30th Sep 1943 ORB’s note:

 .. Three are now 13 Spitfire Mark 9b’s and 18 Spitfire 5B’s on the strength.

 

Logbook 30 Sep

 

1st Oct 1943 ORB’s note:

The first of a new month, the weather is much improved but still much cloud. F/O Crouch an Air Ministry photographer arrived at lunch time to take shots of the boys and planes, for release in Bombay, whose citizens have provided the cash for a number of Spits. Some individual snaps and an action photo of the boys in formation.

 

Group 3Above: Pilots and ground crews of No. 132 Squadron pose for the photographer with their Spitfire Mk Vbs, lined up at Newchurch, Kent. Note the “Bombay” crest below the exhaust stubs has been deleted by censors in this photo and the camouflage nets on the ground ready to be used to cover the aircraft to avoid enemy ground attack. John J Caulton’s Spitfire FF-G in the foreground.

 

(Above) Now this is a bit further on, I wasn’t in this picture, but it’s my aeroplane you can see the prop, see how thin it is at the base of each blade, these (others) were wooden in the background. This is a Mark 5 but, thin ones were metal, and they wound up. And what they had done with this aircraft, see the wing tips were off, cropped, they cropped them and they cropped the blowers so up to 10,000 ft you could cope with the FW190 but over that your speed dropped away because the blower had been cropped and you didn’t have the power that you did below 10,000. They chopped the wings off and just put a piece of wood at the ends, filled the gap in, clipped, cropped and clapped they used to say. Photo, that’s the whole group the day I wasn’t there, I think I might have been on leave, you can’t see the “G” (FF-G rego).

 

Heather 1Above: To further confirm this was J.J Caulton’s aircraft see the close up of the name “Heather” of a girlfriend at some stage, just in front of the cockpit.

 

Group 4Above and below: Pilots pose in front of FF-G, J.J Caulton’s aircraft, his roommate Henry Lacy Smith in centre of map.

 

Group 5

 

132 FormationAbove: 132 Squadron in formation, Oct 1943. Photo Courtesy of Peter Hickson (NZ)

 

 

October 1943-January 1944: Station RAF Detling

 

Group 6Above: Pilots of No. 132 City of Bombay Squadron (Detling), featuring three Caribbean Spitfire pilots:
F/Sgt James Joseph Hyde (from Trinidad) – front row, third from left.
F/Sgt Arthur O. Weekes (from Barbados) – back row, fourth from left.
F/Sgt Collins Alwyin Joseph (from Trinidad) – back row, sixth from right.
Commanding Officer S/Ldr Count Franz Ferdinand Colloredo-Mansfeld DFC (1910-1944, born in Italy from an Austrian father and an American mother) – front row, centre below prop.
F/Lt Harold Edward ‘Harry’ Walmsley (British) – front row, eighth from left.
F/O John Jeremy Caulton (from New Zealand) – front row, fifth from right.
F/O Henry Lacey Smith (Australian) – front row, fourth from right.

 

 

Weekes 3Above: Flying Officer Arthur O. Weekes, from Barbados, and Flight Sergeant Collins A. Joseph of Trinidad, photographed while serving as pilots with No 132 Squadron RAF Fighter Command in 1943.

 

 

10th Sep 1943, ORB’s note:

Arrangements went ahead for the movement of the unit to Winter quarters at Detling.

12th Sep 1943, ORB’s note:

 ..the aircraft took off for Detling at approximately 14:30 hours, the road party moved off as soon as the aircraft had left. All arrived safely at Detling and began organizing the new headquarters, which promised to be quite good.

 

Group 7Above: Back of photo reads: L to R, Bert Collings, R.W Munson, Bob Harden, Lacy Smith, Self (John Caulton), Mark Jones (mechanic) above on the prop.

 

logbook Nov 43

 

7th Nov 1943, ORB’s notes:

RAF Detling: On landing F/L H.L Smith in MH.502 collided with F/O A.O’B Weekes in MH.856 resulting in CAT “B”damage to the former aircraft and a CAT.E to the later, but both pilots were fortunately uninjured. The Squadron was airborne again about noon to fly to Ford to take part in an operation but this was cancelled and they returned to base. While landing at Ford W/O R.C Harden struck an obstruction doing damage to the mainplane. A bad day was completed when it was found that (another aircraft) MH.475 required an engine change. (See below photo, possibly the same aircraft)

 

132 Engine changeAbove: Mechanics of the Aircraft Repair Flight of No. 132 Squadron RAF work on the engine of one of the Squadron’s Supermarine Spitfire Mark IXBs at Ford, Sussex. (Photo credit IWN CH13163)

 

12th Nov 1943, ORB’s note:

The next morning the weather was 10/10th cloud and rain although it improved slightly the only flying all day was an air test after lunch. The Squadron was released about noon and some of the pilots made tracks for Maidstone. Two new aircraft MJ.237 and MJ.173 arrived today to replace the two written off on 7/11/43. There was a part in the Officers mess at night, a joint effort by 125 Airfield and RAF Detling, this was a great success, the Squadron boys getting in some solid drinking time.

 

18th Nov 1943, ORB’s note:

Today two of pilots who had been with the Squadron for some time were posted – AUS. 414054 W/O I.A Markwell an Australian type to 11 PDRC for repatriation to his native land and 658191 F/Sgt T. Swindhurst to be an instructor at No.2 F.I.S, and both took with them the best wishes of all the Squadron who were sorry to see them go.

 

MarkwellAbove: F/O Ian. A Markwell, RAAF 414054, 132 squadron. In Nov 1943 Ian was recalled to defend Australia. On the 24th December 1944, while flying an offensive patrol in Indonesia over Halmaheras, the engine of his aircraft stopped about ten minutes after take-off from Morotai, while at 4,500 feet. He left the formation and tried to re-start the engine without success. He then bailed out at about 2,000 feet over the sea. Ian was seen to land successfully in the sea near the impact site, but when Air Search and Rescue arrived, all they found was the parachute. Ian was reported missing, presumed drowned.

 

22nd Nov 1943, ORB’s note:

F/L A.G Page re-joined the squadron.

 

ORB EskilAbove ORB’s, noting F/O O.J Eskil involvement in an operation.

 

EskilAbove: Flight Lieutenant (Pilot) Odin John Eskil (J11076) 

Eskil left Canadian 111 Squadron to go to England on June 20, 1943. On August 1, 1944 he was killed while attached to RAF 132 Squadron. He was in a collision while landing between a Mustang and his Spitfire (NH 272) near Calvados, France. He is buried at the Bayeux War Cemetery, France. Originally from Iron Mountain, Michigan. He was 27 years old when he died.

 

 

 

***This Chapter with more than 200 combat missions is incomplete at this stage,  be continued soon………… please check back!** See the “War Years 2” page that covers from 29th April 1944 on wards.